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    Vota por este artículo Este artículo ha sido leido 462 veces

    La industria contra el sistema de depósito y retorno de envases

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    Guerra abierta de la industria contra la instauración de un nuevo sistema de depósito, devolución y retorno de envases al que abre la puerta la Ley de Residuos y Suelos Contaminados que vota hoy el Senado.
    La Federación Española de Industrias de la Alimentación y Bebidas (FIAB), la Asociación de Cadenas Españolas de Supermercados (ACES), la Asociación Nacional de Grandes Empresas de Distribución (Anged), la Asociación Española de Distribuidores, Autoservicios y Supermercados (Asedas), la Confederación Española del Comercio (CEC), Ecoembes y Ecovidrio unieron sus fuerzas ayer para denunciar el coste millonario que tendrá la medida en sus respectivos sectores de actividad.

    La ley contempla la creación de un sistema de reciclaje de envases complementario al que gestionan Ecoembes y Ecovidrio desde 1997, en el que el consumidor paga un depósito por el producto envasado al comercio. De devolver el envase, recupera el dinero. Queda aún por definir el coste del depósito. En Alemania, donde el funciona desde 2003, el consumidor paga 25 céntimos de euro por envase. En California, se limita a un céntimo. Los países nórdicos, Australia, Hawai, Nueva York, Oregón, Islandia e Israel también han incorporado el .
    La medida necesita la implantación de 20.000 máquinas expendedoras de envases que se colocarían en los comercios, supermercados e hipermercados, con un coste de 20.000 euros por máquina. Estas organizaciones denuncian que a estos 400 millones de euros se sumarían otros 470 millones anuales para su gestión. “Los costes son inasumibles por el pequeño comercio, para solo un incremento del 2% respecto al reciclado actual”, explicó ayer Paloma Sánchez, directora del departamento de medio ambiente de FIAB.
    Desde la Confederación Española de Comercio (CEC) se señala que a esta inversión inicial habría que sumar el coste de otras infraestructuras complementarias, como cintas transportadoras, máquinas compactadoras de envases, plantas de conteo o el lucro cesante por la pérdida de espacio por venta o almacén.
    El sistema de depósito, devolución y retorno está planteado para la recuperación de envases de un solo uso para agua, cervezas, zumos y refrescos que representan 1.100.000 toneladas de , brik, metales y vidrio. El resto de residuos no orgánicos seguirían bajo el paraguas de los sistemas integrados de gestión (SIG) de Ecoembes y Ecovidrio, que financian las empresas envasadoras de alimentos y bebidas. Las organizaciones reclaman que la ley solo autorice la implantación del nuevo sistema en caso de no alcanzarse los objetivos de reciclaje del 55% fijados por la Unión Europea, “los cuales ya se cumplen holgadamente”, explicó Melchor Ordóñez, presidente de Ecoembes. En 2010, el reciclaje de envases en España alcanzó el 66% de cuantos se pusieron en el mercado.
    Desde la asociación Retorna, que impulsa la implantación del SDDR en España, defienden que el nuevo sistema “crea empleo, ingresos y reduce los residuos, que se convierten en recursos”, explica Domingo Jiménez Beltrán, presidente de la organización, a la que se han sumado Comisiones Obreras, diversas organizaciones ecologistas y el gremio de recuperadores de residuos de Cataluña. “No es verdad que el pequeño comercio perderá dinero, al revés, ya que el sistema prevé el pago a estos establecimientos por contribuir al proceso”, añade Beltrán, antiguo director de la Agencia Europea de Medio Ambiente. Retorna estima que el SDDR generaría ingresos de hasta 600 millones de euros y se alcanzaría el 98% de reciclaje, como ya sucede en Alemania.
    A favor y en contra
    Los detractores del sistema de depósito, devolución y retorno esgrimen costes inasumibles para el comercio, que deberá invertir 400 millones de euros para ponerlo en marcha. Los defensores reivindican que el sistema genera hasta 600 millones de ingresos.
    De residuo a materia prima de mejor calidad
    Cuanto más limpio entra un residuo en el proceso de recuperación y reciclaje, mayor es el valor de la nueva materia prima que se obtiene. De esta tesis parte el gremio de recuperadores de Cataluña para defender el SDDR. “El sistema actual es absolutamente mejorable, ya que está lleno de impuros que merman el precio del producto final”, explica Luis Ortiz, director de la patronal de este sector, que representa el 55% de la actividad en España.

    El valor de la tonelada de o de plástico PET, las joyas de la corona del reciclado por su alto valor en el mercado, queda mermado al mezclarse con otros residuos. De ahí el interés de implantar un sistema complementario, que permita eliminar impurezas, al dar acceso a los residuos separados en origen. “Los materiales se están perdiendo, es absurdo”, añade Ortiz. FUENTE: cincodias.es

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