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    Vota por este artículo Este artículo ha sido leido 13.769 veces

    Recomendaciones para el Reciclado del PET (Botellas de plástico)

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    Los envases y botellas de han sido considerados, internacionalmente, como envases de excelencia por sus propiedades y características: • 1 – Permite minimizar el uso de agua potable para el lavado de envases. • 2 – Es un material aprobado internacionalmente para uso en productos alimenticios. • 4- Su producción es limpia y de bajo consumo de energía. • 4 –  Se requiere de cantidades mínimas de material para fabricar un envase, optimizando la relación de envasado (ml. Contenido / gr. de envase), lo que reduce el peso de los residuos. • 5 – El material ofrece altos niveles de seguridad para consumidores y público en general, así como operadores de la industria y comercio. • 6 – Permite optimizar la logística de transporte y distribución, por lo tanto se logra disminuir las emisiones ambientales.

    • Tiene gran versatilidad y su composición química es simple (no contiene halógenos).
    • Los envases de PET son una gran ayuda en situaciones de desastres naturales.
    • Son envases 100% reciclables.

    Hay tres maneras de aprovechar los envases de PET una vez que terminó su vida útil: someterlos a un reciclado mecánico, a un reciclado químico, o a un reciclado energético empleándolos como fuente de energía.

    De acuerdo con la APREPET, – asociación civil no lucrativa dedicada a fomentar la cultura del reciclado en México, alentar el uso del PET como materia prima de empaques y envases, ayudar al reciclado y reaprovechamiento de este , de los tres tipos de reciclado, el Mecánico es el proceso de reciclado más utilizado, el cual consiste en varias etapas de separación, limpieza y molido.

    Por su parte, para el Reciclado Químico se han desarrollado distintos procesos. Dos de ellos, la metanólisis y la glicólisis, se llevan a cabo a escala industrial. El PET se deshace o depolimeriza: se separan las moléculas que lo componen y estas se emplean para fabricar otra vez PET. Dependiendo de su pureza, este material puede usarse, incluso, para el envasado de alimentos.

    Mientras que el Reciclado Energético tiene la premisa del uso del PET como combustible alterno, los envases pueden emplearse para generar energía ya que este material tiene un poder calorífico de 6.3 Kcal/Kg, y puede realizar una combustión eficiente. Esto es posible ya que durante su fabricación no se emplean aditivos ni modificadores, lo cual permite que las emisiones de la combustión no sean tóxicas, obteniéndose tan sólo bióxido de carbono y vapor de agua.

    Recomendaciones para el Reciclado del PET

    Algunas recomendaciones para un eficiente reciclado del PET son las siguientes, de acuerdo a la parte de la botella:

    - La tapa, el arillo de seguridad y su empaque (liner o sello). Se recomienda que el arillo de seguridad se desprenda del cuello del envase y el empaque de la tapa (liner) se quede en la tapa a la hora de abrir el envase. También se recomienda que la tapa, el arillo de seguridad y el liner sean de: Polipropileno (PP) o Polietileno de alta densidad (HDPE). Estos materiales son preferibles al y a otros materiales. El PVC no es recomendable porque una pequeña cantidad de PVC puede contaminar grandes cantidades de PET dispuesto para su reciclado por su diferente temperatura de fusión o ablandamiento.

    – Las etiquetas. Es preferible usar etiquetas de alguno de los siguientes materiales: Polipropileno (PP), Polietileno orientado (OPP), Polietileno de alta, media o baja densidad (HDPE, MDPE, LDPE) y . Las etiquetas metalizadas dificultan el reciclado de cualquier plástico, pues al contener metales lo contaminan. Las etiquetas deben poder desprenderse en el proceso de lavado del reciclador, por lo que es importante seleccionar un adhesivo conveniente y evaluar las etiquetas termoajustables o a presión. Los sistemas de impresión serigráfica provocan que el PET reciclado y granulado tenga color, disminuyendo sus posibilidades de uso, mercados y precio. Se recomienda evitar pigmentos de metales pesados.

    - El color. La botella de PET transparente sin pigmentos tiene mejor valor y mayor variedad de usos; sin embargo, con una separación adecuada, el PET pigmentado tendrá ciertos usos.

    -  Las multicapas o recubrimientos. Las capas que no son de PET en los envases multicapa, así como los recubrimientos de otros materiales, reducen la reciclabilidad del PET. Es necesario separar esta clase de envases de los de PET simple.

    - Las bandas de seguridad (mangas) y sellos. Estos son generalmente incluidos en el diseño del producto envasado en PET, cuando se consideran necesarios, pero contaminan el PET para reciclar si no son removidos del envase desde la selección y separación del mismo. Se recomienda no utilizar PVC  para fabricar estos elementos.

    FUENTE: http://www.packaging.enfasis.com

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